Karen Shapiro, DVM, MPVM, Ph.D.

Adjunct Professor
Ontario Veterinary College
Department of Pathobiology
University of Guelph
Guelph ON N1G 2W1

School of Veterinary Medicine
Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology
University of California
Davis, CA 95616

Email: kshapiro@ucdavis.edu

Research Interests:

My research interests span the epidemiology, ecology, detection, and transmission mechanisms of zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Much of my work has targeted the waterborne transmission of
Toxoplasma gondii, particularly the land-to-sea transmission of this parasite along coastal California. Other projects have investigated contamination of water and shellfish by Giardia and Cryptosporidium. An integral component of my research program is to employ a holistic, One Health approach, integrating studies on wildlife populations, people, and our environment. Ongoing and future topics that I am interested in pursuing include the effects of landscape change and climate variability on disease transmission; impacts of water scarcity and impaired quality on human and animal population health, and food safety

Zoonoses, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, water quality, food safety, detection, transmission, epidemiology, ecology, wildlife, public health

Recent Publications:
Krusor, C., Smith, W. A., Tinker, M. T., Silver, M. S., Conrad, P. A., and K. Shapiro. 2015. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems. Environmental Microbiology. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12927.
Shapiro, K., VanWomer, E., Aguilar, B., and P. Conrad. 2014. Surveillance for
Toxoplasma gondii in California mussels (Mytilus californianus) reveals transmission of atypical genotypes from land to sea. Environmental Microbiology. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12685
Adell, A., Smith, W. Shapiro, K., Melli, A., and P. Conrad. 2014. Molecular epidemiology of
Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from central California. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80(24):7732-40. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02922-14
Shapiro, K., Krusor, C., Mazzillo, F., Conrad, P., Largier, J., Mazet, J., and M. Silver. 2014. Aquatic polymers can drive pathogen transmission in coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 281: 1795 20141287. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.1287. 
Miles E. Daniels, Hogan J., Smith W. A., Los Huertos M., Oates S. C., Miller M. A., Hardin D., Shapiro K., Conrad P. A., Dominik C., and F. G. R. Watson. 2014.
Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoa pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale model-based approach. Science of the Total Environment. 493: 1036–1046
Orlofsky, E., Gillor, O., Melli
A., Miller,, W. A., Wuertz, S., Bernstein, N., and K. Shapiro. 2013. Simultaneous detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts in soil using immunomagnetic separation and direct fluorescent antibody staining. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 94: 375-377
VanWormer, E., Fritz, H., Shapiro, K., J.A.K. Mazet, and P.A. Conrad. 2013. Molecules to modeling:
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human-animal-environment interface. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 36: 217-231
Shapiro, K., Silver, M.W. Largier, J.L., Conrad P.A., and J.A.K. Mazet. 2012 Association of
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts with fresh, estuarine, and marine macroaggregates. Limnology & Oceanography. 57(2) 449-456
Shapiro, K., Conrad, P.A., Mazet, J.A.K., Wallender W.W., Miller W.A., and J.L. Largier. 2010. Effect of estuarine wetland degradation on transport of
Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from land to sea. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(20) 6821-8
Shapiro, K., Mazet, J.A.K., Schriewer A., Wuertz, S., Fritz, H., Miller, W.A., Largier, L., and P.A. Conrad. 2010. Detection of
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres in water using capsule and ultrafiltration and capsule filtration. Water Research 44(3) 893-903.
Shapiro, K., Largier, L., Mazet, J.A.K., Bernt, W., Ell, J.R., Melli, A., and P.A. Conrad. 2009. Surface Properties of
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(4) 1185-91.